Peruskysymyksiä Joseph Smithin näystä:
- Milloin se tapahtui minä vuonna?
- Missä Smithit asuivat Palmyrassa
- Miksi hän rukoili johtuiko
- Kuka näyssä ilmestyi
Jumala, Jeesus vai enkeleitä?
- Mitä hän sai tietää
Jumalan luonteen, että kaikki kirkot ovat vääriä,
vai että hänen syntinsä ovat anteeksiannetut?
- Milloin hän kertoi muille, ja millaisia
olivat näiden reaktiot?
Tässä artikkelissa ei käsitellä
kaikkia näistä aiheista. Ks. lopussa olevaa listaa lukemista
Puhuessaan v. 1998 lokakuun yleiskonferenssissa
presidentti Gordon B. Hinckley julisti:
Kysymys 1: Mikä on mormonien oppi jumaluudesta,
Ensimmäisen näyn ajoista alkaen ihmiset
ovat kysyneet tätä ja kysyvät sitä edelleen
ja tulevat kysymään sitä niin kauan kuin he uskovat
traditionsa Jumalaan, kun me puolestamme todistamme nykyajan ilmoituksen
Jumalasta. ... Emme tunnusta Athanasioksen uskontunnusta. Emme
uskontunnustusta emmekä mitään muuta perimätietoon
tai ihmisten päätelmiin pohjautuvaa uskontunnustusta.
Tunnustamme oppimme perustaksi profeetta Joseph Smithin toteamuksen,
että rukoillessaan metsässä viisautta "valon
levätessä päälläni minä näin
kahden Persoonan, joiden hohdetta ja kirkkautta on mahdoton kuvata,
seisovan yläpuolellani ilmassa. Toinen heistä puhutteli
minua, kutsuen minua nimeltä, ja sanoi, toista osoittaen:
Tämä on minun rakas Poikani. Kuule Häntä!" (KH J. S. Hist. 17.)
Hänen edessään oli kaksi todellista
olentoa. Hän näki heidät. He olivat muodoltaan
ihmisen kaltaisia ... He olivat lihaa ja luuta olevia olentoja
Myöhempien Aikojen Pyhien Jeesuksen Kristuksen
Kirkon jäsenten usko perustuu kokonaan tämän
suurenmoisen ensimmäisen näyn todenperäisyyteen.
... Ei mikään, mille perustamme oppimme, ei mikään,
mitä opetamme, ei mikään, minkä mukaan elämme,
ole tärkeämpää kuin tämä ensimmäinen
julistus. Esitän, että jos Joseph Smith puhui Isä
Jumalan ja Hänen rakkaan Poikansa kanssa, niin kaikki muu,
mitä hän puhui, on totta. Tämä on sarana,
jonka varassa pelastuksen ja iankaikkisen elämän polulle
johtava portti avautuu. (Ensign Marraskuu 1998, ss.70-71,
Hinckleyn lausunnosta huolimatta kirkon muistiinpanot
osoittavat, että ensimmäinen näky seisoo horjuvalla
pohjalla. Tarina näystä ja mormonien oppi Jumalasta ovat
jatkuvasti kehittyneet. MAP-kirkon nykyinen mielipide ei ole sama
kuin v. 1830 tai 1835.
Joseph Smith claimed, according to his 1842 published
history, that due to a revival in the neighborhood he went into
the woods to pray and asked God which church to join. Supposedly,
two heavenly beings appeared and told him that all of the churches
were wrong. From this time forward he supposedly understood and
taught that God and Jesus each had a physical body and were totally
However, many problems surface when the documents
are studied. For one thing, there is no historical evidence that
such a revival happened that year in his town. This is documented
in Inventing Mormonism. He later claimed that he received
severe persecution during his early years for stating he had this
vision yet there is no published mention of this vision by either
Mormons or non-Mormons until 1840. Also, there is no evidence he
told people between 1820 and 1838 that he had actually seen God
in this vision. There is no evidence that he was teaching that God
and Jesus were totally separate deities with bodies prior to 1838.
Mormonin kirja opettaa, että Isä,
Poika ja Pyhä Henki ovat yksi Jumala (2 Nefi 31:21; Mormon
7:7; Moosia 15:1-5; 3 Nefi 11:27)1
- Isä ja Poika ovat sama persoona (Eter 3:14)
- Alkulehdillä sanotaan: "... että
juutalaiset ja pakanat saisivat varmuuden siitä, että
JEESUS on KRISTUS, IANKAIKKINEN JUMALA, joka ilmoittaa itsensä kaikille kansoille."
- Jumala on henki (Alma 18:26-28; 22:8-11), missään
ei opeteta, että Jumalalla olisi fyysinen ruumis.
- Modalismi Mormonin kirja opettaa
yhden jumalan kolmesta muodosta tai ilmiasusta.2
KH Mooseksen kirja luomiskertomus; Jumala
Smithin Innoitettu raamatunversio muutti jakeita
niin, että isästä ja pojasta tuli yksi (eli Luukas
10:22 on muutettu jakeeksi 10:23: "kukaan ihminen ei tiedä,
että Poika on Isä, ja että Isä on Poika, ei
kukaan paitsi se, jolle Poika ilmaisee sen.").3
Smith's first draft of his history. Only Jesus was mentioned
as appearing. (See The Personal Writings of Joseph Smith,
compiled by Dean Jessee, Deseret Book, 1984, pp. 5-6. Also in An
American Prophets Record, edited by Scott Faulring, Signature
Books, 1989, p.5 and Early Mormon Documents,
Written in Joseph Smith's own hand.
Smith started serious study of the scriptures at
Determined all churches were wrong
No mention of a revival
At age 15 (in his 16th year) he went into the grove
and had a vision of the Saviour
His sins were forgiven. He reverted back to old
At age 17 he again prayed and an angel appeared
telling him about the plates and announced he was forgiven of his
Smith dictated Sec. 84 of the D.&C. stating
that no man can see the face of God without the priesthood.
Oliver Cowdery julkaisi Joseph Smithin avustamana
ensimmäisen kertomuksen mormonismin historiasta kirkon omassa
lehdessä Messenger and Advocate. Kirtlandissä,
Ohiossa, jouluk. 1834, vk.1, no.3.
- Hän aloitti Smithin kertomuksen tarinalla
enkelistä, joka ilmestyi hänen makuuhuoneessaan v. 1823.
Sivulla 42 Cowdery aloitti kertomuksen siitä kun Smith oli
neljäntoista, viidennellätoista ikävuodellaan ja
kertoi alueella tapahtuneesta herätysliikkeestä. Hän
mainitsi metodistikirkkoon kuuluneen herra Lanen suuren herätystliikkeen
osanottajana. Suuria joukkoja liittyi metodistisiin, presbyteerisiin
ja baptistisiin kirkkoihin. Tämän herätysliikkeen
aikana Smithin äiti, yksi sisar ja kaksi veljeä liittyivät
- Sivulla 78 Cowdery korjasi Smithin iän
sanoen, että hän olisikin ollut seitsemännellätoista
(eli kuudentoista) eikä viidennellätoista (eli neljäntoista)
vuodellaan, ja sijoitti tapahtumat vuoteen 1823.
- Herätysliikkeen aikana Smith rukoili saadakseen
tietää "onko jokin Ylin olento olemassa, saadakseni
vakuutuksen, että hän hyväksyy minut."
- Hänen rukoukseensa vastattiin 21.9.1823,
kun "sanansaattaja" ilmestyi hänelle hänen
makuuhuoneessaan "tuomaan erityisen sanoman, ja todistamaan
hänelle, että hänen syntinsä olivat anteeksiannetut,
ja että hänen rukouksensa oli kuultu..."
- Cowderyn selostuksessa ei ollut mitään
mainintaa näystä, joka olisi edeltänyt Smithin
makuuhuoneessa ilmestynyttä enkeliä.
Opin ja liittojen kirjan painokseen sisältyvien
Luentoja uskosta-osion luennossa nro. 5 ei Jumalaa kuvata olentona,
jolla on fyysinen ruumis. "Isä on henkipersoona, ... Poika
... on ruumiillinen persoona."
Binitaarinen** oppi. Jumaluuteen kuuluu
kaksi olentoa. Pyhä Henki on Jumalan mieli.
Joseph kertoi ensimmäisestä näystään
kahdelle eri miehelle. Molempien kertomusten mukaan ilmestyi enkeleitä,
mutta ei puhuta Jumalasta eikä Jeesuksesta.
9.11.1835 kertomus (Personal Writings of Joseph
Smith, ss.75-76, also An American Prophets Record,
s.51. Tämä kertomus on poistettu kirkon omasta julkaisusta History of the Church, osa 2, s. 304)
- Smith kertoi tarinansa juutalaiselle
- Hän ei tiennyt, mikä kirkko opetti
- Ei mainintaa herätysliikkeestä
- Hän meni metsikköön rukoilemaan
- Ilmestyi kaksi persoonaa, joista toinen "todisti
minulle, että Jeesus Kristus on Jumalan Poika."
- Hän näki näyssään "monia
- 17 vuoden iässä hän sai "toisen
enkelinäyn" yksi näistä kertoi hänelle
14.11.1835 kertomus (Personal Writings of Joseph
Smith, s. 84, myös An American Prophets Record,
s. 59) Smith kertoi tarinansa eräälle Erastus Holmesille:
- "...I received the first visitation of Angels which was when I was about 14. years old..."
- Later received the vision regarding the plates
This same account was later printed in the Deseret
News, May 29, 1852. This entry has been changed in the History
of the Church, Vol. 2, p. 312. It now reads "my first vision"
instead of "visitation of angels."
Various articles that attacked Joseph Smith's claims
never raised the issue of the first vision or that he claimed to
see God. "Campbell and others before 1835 objected principally
to claims of authority, modern revelation, miracles, and communitarianism
but not to the doctrines of God and man." (Sunstone,
July/Aug. 1980, p.27)
Smith began studying Hebrew. This eventually impacted
his teaching on Elohim and plural gods.3
Changes relating to the godhead were made in the
second edition of the Book of Mormon. The phrase "the
son of " was added to several verses to distinguish between
the Father and Son. (i.e. 1 Nephi 11:18, 21, 32 and 1 Nephi 13:40)
Joseph ryhtyi kirjoittamaan historiaansa, mutta
sitä ei julkaistu ennen kuin vuonna 1842.
Orson Pratt julkaisi pamfletin A[n] Interesting
Account of Several Remarkable Visions Skotlannissa v. 1840.
Hänen mukaansa Smith rukoili metsikössä ollessaan
"noin neljäntoista tai viidentoista vuoden vanha",
ja hänelle ilmestyi "kaksi loistavaa persoonaa".
Mutta tekstissä ei tunnisteta näitä erityisesti Isäksi
The letter to John Wentworth, March 1, 1842 Account
(Personal Writings, p.213). Also printed in Times and
Seasons, Nauvoo, Ill., March 1, 1842, vol.3, no.9, pp.706-710.
At about 14 Smith started wondering which church
Went into the grove to pray.
"Two glorious personages" appeared and
informed him that none of the churches "was acknowledged of
He was told not to join any of them but wait for
In 1823 an angel appeared to tell him about the
Smith published his 1838-39 account in the Times
and Seasons, Nauvoo, Ill., March 15, 1842, vol.3, no.10, pp.727-728;
When he was in his 15th year (age 14) his mother,
sister, and two brothers joined the Presbyterian Church due to a
revival in the neighborhood. The revival started with the Methodists
and soon spread to the Presbyterians and Baptists.
Joseph went into the grove to ask God which church
to join "for at this time it had never entered my heart that
all were wrong." Two beings appeared. One spoke, pointed to
the other being and said "This is my beloved Son, hear him."
He was told to join none of the churches "for
they were all wrong...all their creeds were an abomination in his
On Sept. 21st, 1823 he again prayed and the angel "Nephi" appeared to him to tell him of the plates ("Nephi"
was later changed to "Moroni" in the History of the
Church, Vol. 1, p.11).
Joseph wrote a prayer in 1842 referring to the Father
as Jehovah and Elohim.2
Current Mormonism teaches that Jehovah is Christ
and Elohim is the Father.
Tritheism-belief in three gods.2
Smith printed the Book of Abraham in the Times
and Seasons. The creation story is told as the work of a council
Smith dictated section 130 of the Doctrine and
Covenants, which taught that God and Jesus both have bodies
but not the Holy Ghost.
If Joseph Smith had actually been teaching since
1820 that God had a body why did he need this revelation?
Smith's temple ritual was introduced. Elohim, Jehovah
and Michael were depicted as creators. But these terms were not
necessarily interpreted the same as Mormonism uses them today.3
Smith wrote a chapter on Mormonism for the book,
An Original History of the Religious Denominations at Present
Existing in the United States, edited by Daniel Rupp. But he
did not state that he saw God and Christ in the vision: "I
retired to a secret place, and began to call upon the Lord. ...two personages, who exactly resembled each other in features
and likeness, surrounded with a brilliant light, which eclipsed
the sun at noonday. They told me that all the religious denominations
were believing in incorrect doctrines,..." (p.404-405)
Smith gave sermons in April and June on the plurality
of gods. (History of the Church, Vol.6)
Lucy Smith started her autobiography. Her preliminary
draft had nothing about Joseph having a vision in 1820. The only
event she mentions for Joseph at this time was that someone took
a shot at him. She recounted that during the third harvest (1823)
the family discussed the contentions of the various churches. That
night "an angel" appeared to Joseph "I perceive
that you are enquiring in your mind which is the true church[,]
there is not a true church on Earth[,]"
(See Early Mormon Documents, vol.1, p. 289-290)
Brigham Young preached his first Adam-God sermon.
Young held to this doctrine the rest of his life, dying in 1877.
Some of the brethren continued to believe the Adam-God doctrine
for years afterward.4
Lucy Smith's family history was printed. She did
not personally recount anything concerning an 1820 vision. Instead,
she simply inserted Joseph's account from the Times and Seasons.
Speaking at conference April 6, 1854, Apostle Orson
"Some one may say, 'If this work of the last
days be true, why did not the Saviour come himself to communicate
this intelligence to the world?' Because to the angels was
committed the power of reaping the earth, and it was committed to
none else. (Journal of Discourses, Vol. 6, p.335)
LDS President Brigham Young taught on Feb. 18, 1855: "...so it was in the advent of this new dispensation....The
messenger did not come to an eminent divine...The Lord did not come
with the armies of heaven,...But He did send His angel to
this same obscure person, Joseph Smith jun., who afterwards became
a Prophet, Seer, and Revelator, and informed him that he should
not join any of the religious sects of the day,..." ( Journal
of Discourses, vol.2, p.171)
A few days later Apostle Wilford Woodruff preached: "That same organization and Gospel that Christ died for, and
the Apostles spilled their blood to vindicate, is again established
in this generation. How did it come? By the ministering of an
holy angel from God,... The angel taught Joseph Smith
those principles which are necessary for the salvation of the world;...
He told him the Gospel was not among men, and that there was not
a true organization of His kingdom in the world,... This man to
whom the angel appeared obeyed the Gospel;..." (Journal
of Discourses, Vol.2, pp.196-197)
LDS Apostle Heber C. Kimball, speaking Nov. 8th,
1857, seemed to be oblivious to any vision where Smith saw God and
Christ: "Do you suppose that God in person called upon Joseph
Smith, our Prophet? God called upon him; but God did not come himself
and call, but he sent Peter to do it. Do you not see? He sent Peter
and sent Moroni to Joseph, and told him that he had got the plates." (Journal of Discourses, vol.6, p.29)
John Hyde, a former Mormon, is a good example of
the confusion regarding who appeared to Smith. In his book, Mormonism:
Its Leaders and Designs, p.199, he related: "1820...April....He
[Joseph] asserts that God the Father and Jesus Christ
came to him from the heavens." However, on p.240
he states "Joseph Smith, born in 1805, sees an angel in
1820, who tells him his sins are forgiven."
Apostle John Taylor explained in a sermon March
1, 1863: "How did this state of things called Mormonism originate?
We read that an angel came down and revealed himself to Joseph
Smith and manifested unto him in vision the true position of the
world in a religious point of view." (Journal of Discourses,
Vol. 10, p.127)
LDS Apostle George A. Smith, Nov. 15th, 1863, preached: "When Joseph Smith was about fourteen or fifteen years old,...he
went humbly before the Lord and inquired of Him, and the Lord answered
his prayer, and revealed to Joseph, by the ministration of angels,
the true condition of the religious world. When the holy angel appeared, Joseph inquired which of all these denominations was right
and which he should join, and was told they were all wrong,..."
(Journal of Discourses, Vol.12, pp.333-334)
One year later, November 15, 1864, Apostle Smith
seemed to be discribing the vision in a more traditional way:
"When the Lord appeared to Joseph Smith and
manifested unto him a knowledge pertaining to the coming forth of
the Book of Mormon and the work of the last days, Satan came also
with his power...He [Joseph] thus describes the incident: "In
the spring of 1820, ...I saw a pillar of light...I saw two personages...'This
is my beloved son, hear him.' ...just at the time that God was revealing
unto his servant Joseph to raise up men to bear testimony of the
principles of the Gospel...Satan was at work stirring up the hearts
of the children of men..." (Journal of Discourses, Vol.
Five years later Apostle Smith again referred to
Smith's first vision: "He sought the Lord by day and by night,
and was enlightened by the vision of an holy angel. When
this personage appeared to him, of his first inquiries was,
'Which of the denominations of Christians in the vicinity was right?' " (Journal of Discourses, Vol. 13, p.77-78 June 20,
Speaking on Dec. 19, 1869, Orson Pratt taught: "By
and by an obscure individual, a young man, rose up, and, in the
midst of all Christendom, proclaimed the startling news that God
had sent an angel to him;... This young man, some four years
afterwards, was visited again by a holy angel." (Journal
of Discourses, Vol.13, pp.65-66)
On March 19 Orson Pratt preached: "He
went out to pray, being then a little over fourteen years of age,
...He saw in this light two glorious personages, one of whom
spoke to him, pointing to the other, saying, 'This is my beloved
Son, hear ye him.' ...When these persons interrogated him
to know what he desired, he answered and said, 'Lord show me which
is the true church.' He was then informed by one of these personages
that there was no true church upon the face of the whole earth;...
The vision withdrew; the personages attending and the light
withdrew. ... he knew that God had manifested himself to him;..."
(Journal of Discourses, Vol. 14, pp.140-141)
Although Orson Pratt's sermon on March 19, 1871
could be interpreted as either angels or God, his sermon on Dec.
10 of that year clearly identified the messengers as angels: "Here
was Joseph Smith, a boy, ...he was only between fourteen and fifteen
years of age....Would he stand forth and bear testimony that he
had seen with his own eyes a messenger of light and glory,
and that he heard the words of his mouth as they dropped from his
lips and had received a message from the Most High, at that early
age? And then...to have the finger of scorn pointed at him, ...'No
visions in our day, no angels come in our day,...' and still
continue to testify, ...that God had sent his angel from
heaven." (Journal of Discourses, Vol. 14, p.262)
Speaking June 23rd, 1874, President Brigham Young
still seemed to be identifying the personages as messengers rather
than God and Christ: "Do we believe that the Lord sent his
messengers to Joseph Smith, and commanded him to refrain from
joining any Christian church, and to refrain from the wickedness
he saw in the churches, and finally delivered to him a message informing
him that the Lord was about to establish his kingdom on the earth,
and led him on step by step until he gave him the revelation concerning
the plates? Yes, this is all correct." (Journal of Discourses,
Later that year, on Sept. 20, 1874, Orson Pratt
preached: "Joseph Smith, ...was a boy about fourteen years
of age at the time the Lord first revealed himself in a very marvelous
manner to him. ...he saw nothing excepting the light and two
glorious personages standing before him in the midst of this
light. One of these personages, pointing to the other, said--'Behold
my beloved Son, hear ye him.. After this, power was given to Mr.
Smith to speak, and in answer to an inquiry by the Lord as to what
he desired, he said that he desired to know which was the true Church,...immediately
after receiving it, he began to relate it to some of his nearest
friends, and he was told by some of the ministers who came to him
to enquire about it, that there was no such thing as the visitation
of heavenly messengers, that God gave no new revelation...he
knew that he had seen this light, that he had beheld these two
personages, and that he had heard the voice of one of them;...and
he continued to testify that God had made himself manifest to him;..." (Journal of Discourses, Vol. 17, pp.278-280)
LDS Apostle John Taylor, speaking December 31, 1876,
identified the personages as follows: "...the Father and
the Son appeared to him, arrayed in glory,...'This is my beloved
Son, in whom I am well pleased...'" (Journal of Discourses,
LDS Apostle John Taylor, speaking on March 2, 1879,
identifies the personages as angels: "...Joseph asked the angel
which of the sects was right...the angel merely told him
to join none of them..." (Journal of Discourses, Vol.20,
However, later the same day, he declared that the
Father and Son appeared to Joseph:""When the Father
and the Son and Moroni and others came to Joseph Smith, he had
a priesthood conferred upon him..." (Journal of Discourses,
Vol. 20, p.257)
On December 7, 1879 Taylor declared: "the Lord
revealed himself to him together with his Son Jesus, and,
pointing to the latter, said; 'This is my beloved Son, hear him.'" (Journal of Discourses, Vol. 21, p. 160).
John Taylor preached on January 4, 1880: "...the
Lord appeared unto Joseph Smith, both the Father and the Son,
the Father pointing to the Son said, 'this is my beloved Son...'" (Journal of Discourses Vol.21, p.65)
Orson Pratt gave his most specific identification
of the personages in his sermon Sept. 18, 1880: "...in the
spring of 1820, before Joseph Smith was of the age of fifteen....in
answer to his prayers, there was the manifestation of two of
the great personages in the heavens--not angels, not
messengers, but two persons that hold the keys of authority
over all the creations of the universe. Who were they? God the
Eternal Father and his Son Jesus Christ,...he heard the glorious
words that proceeded from the Father, as he pointed to his
Son and said, to Joseph, 'This is my beloved Son in whom
I am well pleased.' This was a new revelation;..." (Journal
of Discourses, Vol. 21, p.308)
Apostle George Q. Cannon, on Oct. 29, 1882, seemed
to start Joseph's call with the vision of Moroni. He did mention
that Joseph saw Jesus and God but did not put those experiences
in the framework of the first vision: "He [Joseph] was visited
constantly by angels; and the Son of God Himself condescended to
come and minister unto him, the Father having also shown Himself
unto him; and these various angels, the heads of dispensations,
having also ministered unto him. Moroni, in the beginning,
as you know, to prepare him for his mission, came and ministered
and talked to him from time to time,..." (Journal of Discourses,
Vol. 23, p.362)
William Smith, Joseph's brother, remembered the
vision as happening in 1823. He wrote that Joseph went into the
woods to pray about which church to join: "An angel then appeared to him...He told him that none of the sects were right;..."
(William Smith on Mormonism, by William Smith, 1883, Herald
Steam Book, Iowa, pp.5-10, as printed on New Mormon Studies CD-ROM.)
Apostle George Teasdale understood the first vision
to be "a vision of the Father and the Son." (Journal
of Discourses, Vol. 25, p.13 & 18)
Speaking on January 28, 1884, B.H. Roberts related: "In the Spring of 1820, Joseph Smith,...was praying in the
woods to the Father,,... He saw a pillar of light descending from
heaven...In the midst of this glorious light stood two personages:...
'This is my beloved son; hear ye him.'--...for the Father had
revealed the Son to him." (Journal of Discourses,
Vol. 25, p. 138)
LDS assistant Church Historian Andrew Jenson still
had the understanding that the first vision was one of angels. He
published an account of the first vision in the paper The Historical
Record, Jan. 1888, pp.353-357. This account is taken from the
Times and Seasons account with Jenson's comments summarizing
the experience, "The angel again forbade Joseph to join
any of these churches, ..." Jenson then reverted to Smith's
narrative, "Many other things did he (the angel) say
unto me which I cannot write at this time." Note that Jenson
adds the clarifying words "the angel."
When Jenson's paper was reprinted a couple of years
later this account had been changed in two places. At the spots
where he identified the being as an "angel" it
was changed to "the Holy Being" and "the
Thus we see that the details of the first vision
vary in the different accounts. Early LDS leaders usually thought
of the vision as one of angels, not God. They did not appeal to
the first vision to establish their teaching that God has a body.
Approaches to the Book of Mormon, edited by Brent Metcalfe,
Signature Books, chapter 4.
Upon Line, edited by Gary Bergera, Signature Books, chapter
- Line Upon Line, chapter 4.
- "The Adam-God Doctrine," by David John
Buerger, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Spring